According to Jain scriptures, there is the general human-shaped occupied universe with a volume of 343 Rajjus in the major central part of the infinite-times-infinitely extensive non-occupied universe or non-universe space as observed by the Venerable Omniscients.
Occupied Universe, which is called as 'Lok' has been divided into 3 parts-(i) The Lower Universe (Adholok), (ii) The Middle Universe (Madhya lok) & (iii) The Upper Universe (Upper lok). In the fourteen Rajju - high universe, the lower universe has a height of seven Rajjus, and the upper universe has a height of seven Rajjus. In between the two parts, there is the middle universe having a height of 99, 040 Yojanas. This height is a very small portion of the upper universe, which is negligible in comparison to the Rajju unit. Infact one Rajju length consists of innumerable Yojanas. Hellish beings (Narakis) inhabit the hells in the lower universe; human-beings & animals live in the middle universe and deities occupy the upper universe in general. However different types of deities live in lower & middle universe also. Middle universe contains innumerable concentric islands & oceans. Except these, there are the abodes (Vimans) of Astral deities at the height of 790 Yojans in this middle universe.
Astral Deities (Jyotir-VÂsÍ Devas) : Five Classes of Astral deities There are five major classes of astral deities : (1) Sun, (2) Moon, (3) Planets (4) Constellations and (5) Stars. Their heavenly planes i.e. abodes are shining. Hence, they are called astral deities. All of their planes are like semi-spheres or hemi-spheres. All these astral deities are daily circling around the Meru mountain at a distance of 1121 Y or 44,84,000 miles from it. Out of these deities, the moon, sun and planets are circling around it separately in order in the circumference in the area of 510 48/61 Y of their motion. However, the stars and constellations move in the circumference of their path of motion.
Height of the Astral Deities The astral planes (abodes) of all the five classes of astral deities are situated within a height of 790 Y to 900 Y from this CitrÂ earth, i.e. they are located in a height of 110 Y. First of all, there are astral planes (abodes) of stars which are the smallest having a size of 1/4 Kroía or 250 miles. The thickness of these planes is roughly half their size. The planes of RÂhu are located below the moon and the planes of Ketu are located below the sun. It means that the astral planes are moving one over the other within a distance of 4 PramÂàÂngula, PA (1PA = 500 uA or UtsedhÂngula; 2000 uA) of the sun and moon. The planes of RÂhu and Ketu cover in order the planes of moon and Sun in the bright and dark fifteenth days of the month in every six months. This is called ‘Eclipse’ (Grahaàa). The height etc. of the various astral planes from this earth and their other details like size etc.
Deities of the Category of Conveyance Providers (Àbhiyogyas) The astral planes of the sun and moon each are pulled by the Àbhiyogya deities in different directions. There are 4000 such deities who pull them in the eastern direction by proteating themselves in the form of lion. Four thousands of them pull them in the southern direction through proteation in the form of elephants. Four thousands of them pull them in the west through proteation in the form of bulls and four thousands of them pull them in the north through proteation in the form of horses. Thus, the planes of astral deities are being continuously pulled or driven by 16000 conveyance deities. Similarly, the planes of planets are pulled by 8000 such deities, the planes of constellation are pulled by 4000 such deities and the planes of stars are pulled by 2000 conveyance provider deities.
Speed of Astral Deities The moon moves with the lowest speed. The sun moves faster than moon, the planets move still faster even than sun. The constellations move faster than planets and the stars move fastest of all the astral deities.
Rays of the Sun etc. The astral planes or abodes are natural and they are composed of the earth-bodied shining metal. The solar rays are hot because the earth-bodied beings composing the solar disc have the fruition of the physique-making karma of hot light (Àtapa). The lunar disc is basically cool as the earth bodied beings composing this disc have the fruition of the physique-making karma of cold light (Udyota). Hence, the lunar rays are cool. Similarly, the other astrals also have cold rays.
Number of Astral Planes and Jina Temples In the centre of all the astral planes of the astral deities, there is one Jina temple, in each of them. There are residential mansions of deities surrounding these temples. These astral planes are 1 Rajju wide and are spread upto the middle univese. Hence, their planes are innumerable and, accordingly, the Jina temples also turn out to be innumerable. Each temple has 108 Jina images. My bowings to all these Jina images.
Area of Motion / Movement of the Sun The area of movement of the sun runs upto 108 Y inside JambödvÍpa and 330 48/61 Y inside the Lavaàa ocean. This means that the total area of movement of the sun is 510 48/61 Y (or 2043147 13/61 miles). There are 184 lanes in this areal length. The two suns (of JambödvÍpa) move in these lanes gradually one in each lane. Winter and Summer Solistice (DakîiàÂyana, UttarÂyaàa) When the sun is in the first lane, the winter solistice starts from the first dark day of êrÂvaàa (July-Aug) month. In contrast, when the sun reaches the last lane, there is the start of summer solistice (normally in January).
The Movement of Sun in a Minute The sun moves 447623 11/18 miles in a minute. Sight of Jina Image of the Solar Plane by the CakravartÍ When the sun comes into the first lane during its movement, the CakravartÍ has a sight of the Jina image seated in the temple of solar plane as the sun is located at a point above the royal palace of CakravartÍ at AyodhyÂ at that time. The distance of sight of objects of the Cakravarti is 47263 7/20 Y (i.e. 189053400 miles).
Area of Motion of the Moon There are 15 lanes of moon in the area of motion of the Sun. The moon moves in one lane each day.
Motion of Moon in a Minute The moon moves a distance of 422796 31/1647 miles in a minute.
Dark Fortnight and Bright Fortnight (Kçîàa-pakîa, êukla-pakîa) There is the bright fifteenth day when the moon is visible in full. The RÂhu plane moves below the lunar plane. The Rahu covers the fifteen phases (lanes) of moon in 15 days covering one phase each day. At the last day, one phase out of 16 of moon remains uncovered. This phase is termed as the ‘Dark fifteenth day’ (AmÂvÂsyÂ). The RÂhu, then, begins uncovering one phase in the lane each day and uncovers the 15 phases on the fifteenth day which is called ‘bright fifteenth day’ (PöràimÂ). Thus, there is the division of the month in the form of ‘dark fortnight’ and ‘bright fortnight’ due to Rahu’s covering and uncovering of the phases of the moon.
The Family of the Moon Among the astral deities, the moon is the Indra and the sun is Indra-equivalent (PratÍndra or heir designate). Thus, the Indra moon has one PratÍndra (sun), 88 planets, 28 constellations, 66975 crore x crore of stars (66975 x 1014). All these form the family of the moon. JambödvÍpa has two suns and two moons.
Division of Day and Night The division of day and night is based on the motion of the sun only. It is only the astral deities like the sun and moon etc., located within the area of MÂnuîottara mountain, which move.The astral deities beyond this mountain are static.