सोलहकारण व्रत की जाप्य - "ऊँ ह्रीं अर्हं संवेग भावनायै नमः"
Teen Lok-The Jain Universe B
According to Jain scriptures, there is the general human-shaped occupied universe with a volume of 343 Rajjus in the major central part of the infinite-times-infinitely extensive non-occupied universe or non-universe space as observed by the Venerable Omniscients.
The Height of the Universe
One Rajju length consists of innumerable Yojanas. In the fourteen Rajju - high universe, the lower universe has a height of seven Rajjus, and the upper universe has a height of seven Rajjus. In between the two parts, there is the middle universe having a height of 99, 040 Yojanas. This height is a very small portion of the upper universe which is negligible in comparison to the Rajju unit.
The Width of the Universe
The width of the universe is seven Rajjus in its base (of the lower portion). It is one Rajju in the central or middle universe with gradual decrement from its base. Later, the width gradually increases up to five Rajjus up to the fifth heaven from the middle universe and, then, it decreases to one Rajju at the tip of the universe.
Trasa-nÂlÍ (The Mobile Channel)
There is a trasa-nÂlÍ in the center of the three portions of the universe which is one Rajju wide, one Rajju thick and a little lees than 13 Rajju high. The mobile class of living beings (Trasas) are found only in this channel.
The Lower Universe (Adholok)
It is divided into 10 parts. The first earth is Ratna prabha and it is divided again into three parts-Khar, Pank & Abbahul. The first hell is situated at Abbahul part. Below this, is the second earth named as Sharkara prabha. It is followed by third earth named as Baluka prabha, the fourth earth is Pank prabha, the fifty earth is Dhoom prabha, the sixth earth is Tamah prabha and the seventh earth named as Maha Tamah prabha. At last there is the tenth division of Nigod.
You should know here that destinities (i.e. Gatis) are four-Manushya Gati (i.e. human beings), Tiryanch Gati (i.e. animals, plants etc.), Dev Gati (i.e. celestial beings) and Narak Gati (i.e. hellish beings). Out of these the Celestial beings or deities are of four types-Bhavanvasi (i.e. mansional deities), Vyantarvasi (i.e. Peripatetic deities), Jyotirvasi (i.e. Astral deities) and Kalpvasi (i.e. Graded Empyrean deities). There are ten types of Bhavanvasi deities-Asur Kumar, Nag Kumar etc., while Vyantar deities are of eight types as-Kinnar, Kimpurush, Rakshas etc. Nine types of Bhavanvasi deities except Asur Kumars and seven types of Vyantar deities except Rakshas live in Khar part of the first earth. Asur Kumars and Rakshas deities live in Pank part of the first earth. All these types of deities are very nice in appearance and not fierce as their names suggest.
There are 77200000 Jain Temples of Bhavanvasi deities in khar and Pank divisions, while there are innumerable Jain Temples of Vyantar deities in both thses divisions.
Usually, people think that there are only hellish beings in the lower Universe, but it is not correct, because as told above there are crores of Jin Temples there. After the Khar and Pank divisions, there are seven hells, where hellish beings live. The seventh hell is followed by Nigod, where Nigodia beings take birth and die 18 times in the time span of one breath. These Nigodia beings can not be seen by eyes even after using the highest powered microscope. Only Omniscient Lords see them.
The Middle Universe (Madhya Lok )
There is Middle Universe between the upper and the lower Universe. It’s height is equal to that of the Sumeru Mountain i.e. 1 Lac 40 Yojan. It’s width is 1 Rajju i.e. innumerable yojans in the form of a plate. Here are innumerable concentric Islands & Oceans alternately. The first Island is Jambudweep and the last Island is Svayambhuraman dweep. The existence of human beings is limited upto two & a half Islands i.e. Jambudweep, Dhatki Khand dweep & half Pushkarvar dweep (Pushkarardh dweep). Beyond these two & a half Islands, only animals and deities remain present.
Consider the following points-
1. The first dweep or island is ‘Jambudweep’, which is 1 Lac Yojan (40 Crore Miles) in diameter. Lavaàa Samudra (i.e. Salty Ocean) encircling Jambudweep is double of it i.e. 2 Lac Yojan (1 Mahayojan = 2000 Kosh = 4000 Miles).
There is Sumeru (or Sudarshan Meru) mountain in the centre of JambödvÍpa which is 1 lac Yojan high and ten thousand Yojans wide. There are seven regions (Kîetras) and six principal and permanent mountains (KulÂchals) in it. The names of these six mountains are: (1) HimavÂn, (2) MahÂ-himavÂn, (3) Niîadha, (4) NÍla, (5) RukmÍ and (6) êikharÍ. The names of the seven regions are : (1) Bharata, (2) Haimavata, (3) Hari, (4) Videha, (5) Ramyaka, (6) Hairaàyavata and (7) AirÂvata.
The size of Bharata region is 190th part of JambödvÍpa. The size of HimavÂna mountain is twice that of the Bharata region. Similar is the case until the Videha region and later the size of regions and mountains becomes half.
There is the VijayÂrdha mountain in the center of Bharata region. It is 50 Yojans (2 lac miles) wide and 25 Yojans (1 lac miles) high. Its length touches the Lavaàa ocean on both the sides. On both the northern and southern sides above this mountain, there are cities of VidyÂdhars. VidyÂdhars are the humanbeings, who are proficient in superpowers by birth. There are fifty cities in the south and sixty cities in the north. This VijayÂrdha mountain is silvery. A similar VijayÂrdha mountain is also there in the AirÂvata region which also has the same dimensions and details.
2. Encircling Lavaàa Ocean, there is the 2nd island named as Dhatkikhand Dweep of 4 lac Yojan. Kalodadhi Ocean of 8 lac Yojan diameter encircles this Dhatkikhand Dweep.
3. Kalodadhi Ocean is encircled by Pushkarvar Dweep, which is 16 Lac Yojan in diameter. This 3rd island is encircled by Pushkarvar Ocean of 32 Lac Yojan diameter.
In the just middle of the circumference of the Pushkarvar Island, bangle shaped Manushottar Mountain is lying. As the name suggests, the Manushottar Mountain is the boundary, beyond which the human beings cannot go.
The region upto this mountain is called as Dhaei Dweep or two and a half island-the first being Jambudweep, the second being Dhatkikhand Dweep and then half of the Pushkarvar Dweep.
Beyond Pushkarvar Island also, there are innumerable islands and oceans alternately. The diameter is double than that of the previous one in each case upto the last Swayambhuraman island and Swayambhuraman Ocean.
4. Now, we have to know about the names of the first 13 Islands, they are-
1st - Jambudweep
2nd - Dhatkikhand Dweep
3rd - Pushkarvar Dweep
4th - Varunivar Dweep
5th - Ksheervar Dweep
6th - Ghritvar Dweep
7th - Kshodravar Dweep
8th - Nandishvar Dweep
9th - Arunvar Dweep
10th - Arunabhas Dweep
11th - Kundalvar Dweep
12th - Shankhvar Dweep
13th - Ruchakvar Dweep
Terahdweep i.e., the first 13 islands of the Middle Universe are given preference over the innumerable islands because Eternal and Natural Jain Temples exist only from the 1st island Jambudweep upto the 13th island Ruchakvar. The number of these Natural Jain Temples is 458.
There are 398 Natural Temples in Dhaei Dweep, then there are no temples from 4th to 7th island, again in 8th Nandishvar island there are 52 Temples (13 in each four directions). Later, the 9th and 10th islands have no temples. Again, there are 4 temples in 4 directions on the bangle-shaped Kundalvar Mountain lying in the middle of the circumference of the 11th Kundalvar island. Again, there is no temple in the 12th island and then there are 4 Natural Jain Temples in 4 directions on the circular Ruchakvar Mountain in the middle of the circumference of the 13th Ruchakvar island. Thus, the number becomes-
398 + 52 + 4 + 4 = 458 Natural Jain Temples
These facts have been quoted on the basis of ancient Jain Scriptures, written by ancient Acharyas based on the Sermons of Lord Jinendra in His Samavsaran (Divine Preaching Assembly).
Eternal and Natural Jin Temples means, which are present from times immemorial and will remain there for infinite times; no one has created them and nobody can destroy them.
Astral Deities (Jyotir-VÂsÍ Devas)
In this Middle Universe, there are the abodes (Vimans) of Astral deities at the height of 790 Yojans. These Astral deities are-Sun (Surya), Moon (Chandrama), Planets (Grahas), Constellations (Nakshatras) and Stars (Tare). These are dispersed upto innumerable Islands & Oceans.
Their heavenly planes i.e. abodes are shining. Hence, they are called astral deities. All of their planes are like semi-spheres or hemi-spheres. All these astral deities are daily circling around the Meru mountain at a distance of 1121 Y or 44,84,000 miles from it. Out of these deities, the moon, sun and planets are circling around it separately in order in the circumference in the area of 510 48/81 Y of their motion. However, the stars and constellations move in the circumference of their path of motion.
Height of the Astral Deities
The astral planes (abodes) of all the five classes of astral deities are situated within a height of 790 Y to 900 Y from this CitrÂ earth, i.e. they are located in a height of 110 Y. First of all, there are astral planes (abodes) of stars which are the smallest having a size of 1/4 Kroía or 250 miles. The thickness of these planes is roughly half their size. The planes of RÂhu are located below the moon and the planes of Ketu are located below the sun. It means that the astral planes are moving one over the other within a distance of 4 PramÂàÂngula, PA (1PA = 500 uA or UtsedhÂngula; 2000 uA) of the sun and moon. The planes of RÂhu and Ketu cover in order the planes of moon and Sun in the bright and dark fifteenth days of the month in every six months. This is called ‘Eclipse’ (Grahaàa). The height etc. of the various astral planes from this earth and their other details like size etc. are given in the attached Table.
Deities of the Category of Conveyance Providers (Àbhiyogyas)
The astral planes of the sun and moon each are pulled by the Àbhiyogya deities in different directions. There are 4000 such deities who pull them in the eastern direction by proteating themselves in the form of lion. Four thousands of them pull them in the southern direction through proteation in the form of elephants. Four thousands of them pull them in the west through proteation in the form of bulls and four thousands of them pull them in the north through proteation in the form of horses. Thus, the planes of astral deities are being continuously pulled or driven by 16000 conveyance deities. Similarly, the planes of planets are pulled by 8000 such deities, the planes of constellation are pulled by 4000 such deities and the planes of stars are pulled by 2000 conveyance provider deities.
Speed of Astral Deities
The moon moves with the lowest speed. The sun moves faster than moon, the planets move still faster even than sun. The constellations move faster than planets and the stars move fastest of all the astral deities.
Rays of the Sun etc.
The astral planes or abodes are natural and they are composed of the earth-bodied shining metal. The solar rays are hot because the earth-bodied beings composing the solar disc have the fruition of the physique-making karma of hot light (Àtapa). The lunar disc is basically cool as the earth bodied beings composing this disc have the fruition of the physique-making karma of cold light (Udyota). Hence, the lunar rays are cool. Similarly, the other astrals also have cold rays.
Number of Astral Planes and Jina Temples
In the centre of all the astral planes of the astral deities, there is one Jina temple, in each of them. There are residential mansions of deities surrounding these temples. These astral planes are 1 Rajju wide and are spread upto the middle univese. Hence, their planes are innumerable and, accordingly, the Jina temples also turn out to be innumerable. Each temple has 108 Jina images. My bowings to all these Jina images.
Area of Motion / Movement of the Sun
The area of movement of the sun runs upto 108 Y inside JambödvÍpa and 330 48/81 Y inside the Lavaàa ocean. This means that the total area of movement of the sun is 510 48/81 Y (or 2043147 13/61 miles). There are 184 lanes in this areal length. The two suns (of JambödvÍpa) move in these lanes gradually one in each lane.
Winter and Summer Solistice (DakîiàÂyana, UttarÂyaàa)
When the sun is in the first lane, the winter solistice starts from the first dark day of êrÂvaàa (July-Aug) month. In contrast, when the sun reaches the last lane, there is the start of summer solistice (normally in January).
The Movement of Sun in a Minute
The sun moves 447623 11/18 miles in a minute.
Sight of Jina Image of the Solar Plane by the CakravartÍ
When the sun comes into the first lane during its movement, the CakravartÍ has a sight of the Jina image seated in the temple of solar plane as the sun is located at a point above the royal palace of CakravartÍ at AyodhyÂ at that time. The distance of sight of objects of the Cakravarti is 47263 7/20 Y (i.e. 1890534000 miles).
Area of Motion of the Moon
There are 15 lanes of moon in the area of motion of the Sun. The moon moves in one lane each day.
Motion of Moon in a Minute
The moon moves a distance of 422796 31/1647 miles in a minute.
Dark Fortnight and Bright Fortnight (Kçîàa-pakîa, êukla-pakîa)
There is the bright fifteenth day when the moon is visible in full. The RÂhu plane moves below the lunar plane. The Rahu covers the fifteen phases (lanes) of moon in 15 days covering one phase each day. At the last day, one phase out of 16 of moon remains uncovered. This phase is termed as the ‘Dark fifteenth day’ (AmÂvÂsyÂ). The RÂhu, then, begins uncovering one phase in the lane each day and uncovers the 15 phases on the fifteenth day which is called ‘bright fifteenth day’ (PöràimÂ). Thus, there is the division of the month in the form of ‘dark fortnight’ and ‘bright fortnight’ due to Rahu’s covering and uncovering of the phases of the moon.
The Family of the Moon
Among the astral deities, the moon is the Indra and the sun is Indra-equivalent (PratÍndra or heir designate). Thus, the Indra moon has one PratÍndra (sun), 88 planets, 28 constellations, 66975 crore x crore of stars (66975 x 1014). All these form the family of the moon. JambödvÍpa has two suns and two moons.
Division of Day and Night
The division of day and night is based on the motion of the sun only. It is only the astral deities like the sun and moon etc., located within the area of MÂnuîottara mountain, which move.The astral deities beyond this mountain are static.
The Upper Universe (Urdhva Lok)
There is 7 Rajju high upper universe above the middle universe. Infact, the negligible height (1 lac 40 yojans) of middle universe has been derived from the upper universe only. There are 16 heavens (in 8 pairs), 9 Graiveyakas, 9 Anudiías and 5 Anuttara abodes or vimÂnas in the upper universe with Siddha êilÂ at the top.
There are 21 parts in the Upper Universe, the 1st part consists of Sumeru Mountain (Middle Universe), 8 parts consist of 16 heavens, 9 parts consist of 9 Graiveyaks, 1 part consists of 9 Anudishas, 1 part consists of 5 Anuttaras and the topmost part consists of Siddhashila, where reside the Siddha Bhagwan or Liberated Beings.
Total Natural Jina Temples and Jina Idols of all the three universe
As mentioned before, there are 7 crore 72 lac natural (Akçtrima) Jina temples (of Mansional deities) in the lower universe, 458 Jina temples in the middle universe and 84 lac 97 thousand & 23 Jina temples in the upper universe, thus a total of 8 crore 56 lac 97 thousand 481 natural Jina temples are present in three universe. There being 108 Jina idols in each temple, a sum total 925 crore, 53 lac, 27 thousand, 948 idols are present in the whole universe. I sincerely bow down to all these natural Jina temples & idols. Except these, I also bow down to innumerable Jina temples & idols of peripatetic and astral deities along with numerable constructed (Kçtrima) Jina temples & idols of the middle universe.
This completes the description of three Universe i.e. Teen Lok in short. Now we have to understand the importance of knowing all these details. According to Indian thought, there are four principal pursuits i.e. Purusharths in human life-Dharma (Religion), Arth (earning money), Kam (sensual desires) & Moksha (Salvation). Those who are indulged in only Arth and Kam purusharths, they transmigrate in all the four destinities (Gatis) and maximize their worldly existense. Those who adopt the Dharma purusharth or religious path, they minimize their worldly transmigration and attain Salvation in due course of time.
According to Jain Tirthankars, there are seven vices(Vyasnas)-Gambling, eating meat, drinking wine, enjoying prostitutes, hunting, stealing & enjoying other's wife and 5 types of sins broadly-Violence (Himsa), Falsehood (Jhunth), Stealing (Chori), Non-celibacy (Kusheel) & Over Possessions (Parigrah) and because of the involvement in these vices & sins, the humanbeings can take birth in lower destinities like Hells, Animals etc. after death. So the most important fact to be understood, is that by doing the sinful activities, a human being can take birth in hells or animals and by performing virtuous deeds, he can become the deity in heavens or human being in Middle Universe, so one should understand the utmost importance of being the human and adopting the morally-sound life style i.e. practising vegetarianism, avoiding all types of vices, the nature of deceiving others & telling lie. etc.