Anekant and Mutul Tolerance
Anekant and Mutual Tolerance
Every living being, every religion tries to answer and faces three Central questions in every country all the time-in search of happiness, bliss and truth
1. What should l belive in? What is the corret faith?
2. What should I learn? What should I know?
3.What should I do? What actions should I take to achieve eternal happiness and bliss.
There are Two ways in which the above questions have been answered. One is by EKANTWAAD -one sided absolutism. One insists on one's own truth of his own faith and absolutely denies the validity of the opposite view. Such a view many a time has promoted hate. I Quote Martin Luther King-
the darkness of a starless night becomes
more dark. Darkness can not remove darkness
Hate multiplies hate : it is only light
that can remove it.
Voilence multiplies voilence
Muscle power multiplies muscle power.
that cyclone descends downward
And there is destruction all around.
Jains go out in search of the point of view of ANEKANTWAAD. The apparently conflicting religions can be reconciled by Jaina principle of many sidedness or non absolutism. This principle promotes mutual tolerance because there may be apparant differences in different religions in rituals and matters of ceremony, but there is strong under current of similar principles and values in all religions. There is fundamental unity at the root of all religions. I quote- Fritjof capra Fritjof Capra says:
When the mind is disturbed Multiplicity of objects take shape But when the mind is silent The multiplicity of objects evaporates and unity is achieved' At the root of all religions The fundamental unity of existence seems to be recognized. As ling as that unity in not forgotteen No conflict would ever arise among the religions.
The key of knowledge, by Barrister C.R. Jain echos the same views-
"Apart from matters of ceremony there are hardly any differences in the cardinal principles of the different creeds which are flourishing in our midst in the world. The differences with respect to doctrinal matters and dogmatic belief disappear with the true interpretation of the sacred books and we have also seen how a true and lasting reconciliation is possible amongst the followers of the apparently hostile sects. Even the differences in respect of ceremonies exist on the surface and totally disappear when we look into the principles underiying their observance. The ignorant alone emphadize the difference between the places and forms of worship: in reality, the object of worship is always the same, whether it be understood by the devotee or not. (C R Jain- Key of knowledge.)
To the true worshipper in spirit all places are places are alike, their forms and designations being matter of secondary import. The Sufis maintain :-
"The true mosque in a pure and holy heart is builded : there let all men worship God; for there He swells, not in a mosque of stone".
The fact is that the earnest seeker after truth has eyes and ears only for the living Divinity enshrined within his won heart and not for the style and syructure of the places made by the human hand.
So far as the attainment of happiness is concerned, there are no material differences in the principal religions of the world. They all prescribe :
(1) discriminaiton between the Self and the non-self,
(3) concentration and
for the attainment of the great ideal of happiness. The Hindus classify these means as the different kinds of yoga, Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga, Raja Yoga, Bhakti Yoga and like the Muhammadans describe them as belief, purification, resignation and dovotion; in other systems they are known by othere names. The great codifier Manu difining dharma said,
Dhrithi ksama damoasteyam saucamindtiyanigrahah, Dhiravidya satyamkrodho dasakam dharmalaksanam.
Dharma or good conduct has ten characterstics: (A) dhrti (for,mess), (2) ksama (forgiveness), (3) dama (self-restraint), (4)astey (not stealing), (5) souca (cleanliness), (6) indriya-nigraha (restraint of senses), (7) dhi (wisdom), (8) vidya (knowledge), (9) satya (truth), and (10) akrodha (non-anger/non-violence). They are beneficial not only for Hindus but for the entire world. An individual or society can move towards the upliftment by obderving them in life. So are Ten superior human qualities mentioned in Jaina thought which can make life of the individual and the society pure, peaceful and happy. They are ksama (forgiveness), mardava (softness), arjava (pure), satya (truth), soucha (cleanliness), samyama (restraint), tapa (austerity), tyaga (renunciation), akincana (poor/desitute), and aparigraha (possessionless). They too take us towards good conduct and humanity.
Patanjali (200 BC) in Samadhi Shatak (Sutra33) says:
cew$eer keâ®Ceecegefoleeshes#eeCeeb megKeogŠKehegCÙeefJe<eÙeeCeeb YeeJeveeleef§ele Øemeeoveced The mind becomes clarified by cultivating attitudes of friendliness, compassion, gladness and indifference respective by towards happiness misrey, virture and vice. A Jain Saint Acharya Amitgati in 12th century in the equanimity Sutra of the Jains said: melJes<eg cew$eeR iegefCe<eg Øeceesob efkeäue°s<eg peerJes<eg ke=âhee hejlJeced ~ ceeOÙemLe YeeJeb efJehejerleJe=leew, meoe ceceelcee efJeoOeeleg osJe~~
Oh Lord (life) make myself such that. I may always have love for all living (friendship with all) please in the company of learned, sympathy & compassion for those in pain, and tolerance for those who are pervesely unclined towords me. Conclusion :
The objective of every religion should be not to increase the personal and social prejudices but to bridge the gulf between the numerous faiths by promoting better understanding & promoting mutual tolwrance. All the articles in the present issue of Anekant emphasize that there are more similarities among different religions then differences which are very superficial & insignificant. Almost all religions emphasize and accept that love compassion and non violence, self restraint and austerity is supreme (Dharma) spritual values. It is by virtue of spiritual values that supreme spintual benificence results. To him whose mind is absorbed in spirtual values even godeds pay homage. " Remember that everywhere you will find some sort of faith and righteousenss. See that you foster this and do not destroy". KING ASOKA.
comparative Study of Jaina Philosophy of karma With the Schools of Indian Philosophy And its Socio-Spiritual Analysis
-Dr. Samani Shashi
As per Jain perspective, our karmas determine what we deserve and what we can deserve. The entire ancient Indian philosophical thought, right form the vedas to the modern Vedant of Sankar, has the law of karma as its basic foundation. If this presupposition is negated or is shown to have no logical or scientific basis for its acceptance, all Indian philosophical systems except Carvfaaka philosophy become redundant. The law of karma is not only the foundation fo India's philosophy but also guides all social actions of the people of this countyy. The Indian moral ideas have evolced from the vedic and sramanic traditions and the Law of karma is one of the central principles on which the entire Jain philosophy rests. The preseny article is a honest endeavior to discuss the role of karma in Indian Philosophy. The article is divided into three sections; A, B and c. In part-A, I gave discussed the jaina theoty of karma and pard-B explains about the comparative Study of Jaina Philosophy of karma With the Indian philosophy and the third and the last Part-C is dedicated to the socio-spiritual analysis of jaina theoty of karma.
As per Jain perspective, our karmas determine what we deserve and what we can deserve. We are responsible for what we are. Moreover, what we wish to be, we have the power to make curselves. If our present life ts the result of our past deeds, it certainly follows that our future can be produced by our present actions. For illustration: X produces Y and Y produces Z and so on. So we can assert that Z is produced by X. So the law of causation upon which the entire structure of physical and biological sciences are based, strengthens our belief in the law of karma. The law of karma in turn ultimately based on the doctrine of rebirth. It is said that when a man is born in this world, his birth may be the result of anyone of his numerous acts, or a set of acts, which may have to be fructified through several bodies. The consequenceof a person's acts not being fully worked out in this life, need a future life for their consumption. The doctrine of immortality of the soul which justifies the belief in a future existence of the individual, wqually justifies the pre-existence of the Law of Karma.
Karma according to Jains, is of material nature, is a matter in a subtle form, having a substantial force. It has the property of developing the effects of merit and demerit. The soul, by its dealing with the outer, becomes associated with the particles of subtle matter scattered throughout the universe. These become Karma and build up a special body called Karmanasarira, which does not leave the soul till its final emancipation. As per Jain view, each Karma works in such a way that every change which takes place leaves a mark on our character. It produces effects on character, disposition, instincts and tendencies of the doer. The word saskaara is meant for the physcial, moral and mental traits with which a person is born. They form part of his personality and are borne by him in this life time and carried into a future existence. This leads us to conclude that all that exists and happens in the phenomenal worls is if. Thus, it may be said that all our miseries as well as happiness are due to our own Karmsa. the outcome our own deeds of. So, if our deeds are good, the results are also food and they are bad they lead to bad results.
The general maxim, 'As you sow, so shall you reap', which formulates the essence of the law of Karma, has no evidence in the cmpirical world. If we try to look into the livesof individuals the law is operative in its negative form. You do wrong, and still you lead a happy life is full of miseries. Such cases have, no doubt, been attempted to be recondiled with the law of Karma on the other grounds, specially the present one. But what is the scientific basis for the acceptance of the past life cases? Cases have been reported wherein some persons are believed to be narrating the incidents of past life. But we have not as yet found an instance which has received universal acceptance as the scientific laws. Observation and experiment are the two important steps of scientific procedure. It is on the basis of verification that scientific laws are established. Can the law of karma be verified? The analysts would surely brush aside such laws for the simple reason that they are meaningless, because this theory cannot be verified empirically. So we have no scientific evidence for the law of karma. The law of causation itself is a presumption which has not been proved conclusively. Still moral arguments adduced in support of the law of karma can at best put in the category fo a postulate of marality. Not only morality but also the entire structure of Indian philosophy rests on this law of karma presumption. Rajendra Prasad quotes- The three belief systems i.e. the belief in law of karma, the belief in rebirth, and the belief in maksha form a good ligical family in the sense that no one of them can be completely disassociated from the each other.
Belief in the law of karma is considerded to be one of the most fundamental features of classical Indian philosophy with the lone exception of the so called Carvakas (materialists) and western thinkers don't agree and believe in this law of karma. Those semantic religions like Christianity, Islamism, and Judaism don't believe in the concept of rebirth. So is the belief system of a person which regulates the entire actions of the human beings. The history of India also repeated the very same things during the period of British rule, colonise the belief system of Indians and colonise the Indians. This tool was adopted by the Britishers and they succeded in their goal. In the same way, what we see in the wstern worldsituations today is an effect of their belief system which can be seen in the name of over materialistic life style, highly technological progress and comfort zone attitude leading towards the problem of deficiency of natural resources, deforestation, global warming, climate change, species extinction reactive voilence and all such dis-compassionate human behaviour. They were all together bearing the fruition or consequences of their own belief system backed up by their non-belief in law of karma.
Concept of karma in Classical Indian Philosophy: A Comparitive Study
But for the Carvakas all the orthodox systems base their views upon the Law of karma: For them, perception is the only valid source of knowledge. Nothing is real, which is not perceptible. As soul has no existence in the philosophy of Varvakas, they do not believe in the future life and the Law of karma. The ideal which Carvakas preseny before us is that of hedonism. It lays emphasis on the individual happiness.
The denial of soul is as absurd as to say that "my mother is barren". If there is no soul as a separate entity then body is the soul, which is contradiction in saying. By rejecting the existence of soul, Carvakas reject the doctrine of rebirth and karma which reduces their philosophy to escapicism. They do not care even for moral values. As they reject every other source of knowledge other than perception and all moral values of life, 'Agnosticism' and 'Escapicism' are the necessary outcome of the philosophy of Carvakas.
The Buddhists hold that every one in the universe is subjecy to the influence of cause and effect. "What is that which sets the phenomenal world into motion in order to come into existence from the unknown and again, to disappear into the unknown to reappear again, as before, without ever stopping the continuity coming and disappearing? The only answer to this is, that it is due to the saskaras, the result of our own day -to-day actions, that the continuity of the samsara is maintained. As Buddhists agree that soul is transitory in nature the law of conservation cannot occur. The law of conservation means that there is no loss of effect of work done and that there is no happening of events to a person except as the result of his own work, merits and demerits of action.
According to the Nyaya-Vaiseika school, our body has its source in the acts done by the person, and is the basis of pleasure and pain. The body is formed under the influence of the unseen force of destiny and is the result of the persistence of the effect of the previous acts. The birth of a being is not a mere psychological process. Uddyotakara says: Thekarma of the parents who have to enjoy the experiences resulitng from the birth of the child, as well as the karma of the personality which has to undergo experiences in the world, both these conjointly bring about the birth of the body in the mother's womb. The connection of the soul with the body is called its birth and its birth and iys separation it death. We come into the world not in entire forgetfulness, but with certain memories and habits axquired in the previous step of existence. There must be a future where we can experience the fruits of our deeds and a past to account for the differences in our lots in the present. When we exhaust all out deeds, the soul is freed from rebirth and attains emancipation. According to Vatsyayan, "the fruition of all one's acts comes about in the lasy birth preceding release". In the philosophy of Sakhya-yoga school, thelaw of karma is assumed as a valid principle of life. They hold that our life, its character and everything are determined by it. They argue that though we do not remember our past lives, we can infer particulars about them from the tendencies of the present. These tendencies, according to them, will cease to exist on the disappearance of their cause (hetu), motive (phala), substratum (asraya), and objecy (alambana). The root catse is avidya, though we may have other proximate causes Sakhya's theory of satkaryavad also points out the admissibility of the Law of karma. According to it, the effect subsists in Iatent in the cause. They argue for the same reason that the non-existent cannot be made existent.
In the same way, our present is an outcome of our past lives and on the same logic, the future will be the result of our present lives.
Mimasakas attempt to prove the Law of karma with the help of its doctrine of apurva. They say that out acts are enjoyed with a view to their fruits. There is a necessary connection between the act and iys result. Jaimini termssuch unseen force, as apurva, i.e. something new, not known before. So, apurva is the metaphysical link between work and iys result. According to them, man enjoy the fruits of his actions performed in the past life, here in the present by means of. In the same way, he will have to enjoy the fruits of actions performed in the present life, with the help of same apurva.
For Sandara individuality is due to darma. which is a product of avidya. The world, we live in is just the return of the works of doer. The individual is working machinety intended to produce its effects in the form of suffering and happiness. Moral life is always active and iis never exhausted. It takes endless forms, owing to the variety of the demands of the conditions of human life. This process goes on for ever, unless perfect knowledge is gained. Perfect knowledgeconsumes the seed of karma and makes rebirth impossible. Freedom from the subjection of the Law of karma is the end of human life. To get rid of avidya is to be freed from the Law of karma.
Point of Agreements and Disagreements
1. As per Vedantins, Diversity is the product of avidya. In the same way, jains do believe in Diversity is the product of karma.
2. Moreover avidya can be overcome only by right knowledge. In the same way, jains do believe in dhange of karmas through ones self effort. Not only this but right knowledge right intuition right conduct together pave the path of liberation.
3. Actions are classified into three categories (prarabdha, sancita sancyamana) in accordance with the degree of maturation attained by them. The question of maturation arises because there may exisy a time-lag between an action done and the effectuation of the relevant experiences of joy or sorrow for the doer. Even jains do believe in time-lag between karmic bondage and fruition of karma.
4. The condequences of sancita sancyamana actions can be avoided by theattainment of right knowledge but those of prarabdha actions canot by any means. Only the fruits of unriped karma can be destroyed by true knowledhe. Yhe rruits of riped karma have to be experienced in any case, even if true knowledge is attained. 4In the same way jains also believe that only dalik karmas can be changed, the nikacita kaemas cannot be cganged even by tirthankaras.
5. The systematic and scientific mechanism of eighy categories of karmas as discussed in Jainism is not found elsewhere.
6. Jainism provides a clear picture of process of bondage and spiritual ways to get rid of this karmic bondage and end the cycle of birth and death.
7. The concept of transference of merit is not permitted in Jainism but the concept of self-responsibility of onex actions is accepted.
8. Mahavira propounded the concept of atmakarttvavada (theory of creation by the self). In matters of pleasure and pain, neither God nor anybody else is responsible for them the worldly soul is solely responsible for them.
jains don't impose on anybody to have belief in this notion of karma. As Jain philosophy is basically anekantic philosophy, it do asserts and supports the contradictory notion in the light of the other infinite number of perspectives. We can manage to experience the difference in the responsible actions operated by the person having belief in this natural law of karma. The law of karma, therefore is a laW, which dominates all other natural laws, but it is not a blind law. It is living and spiritual-cum-social law. We can proceed into the world of practical life where this philosophy of karma has iys own sociospiritual relevance in all spheres of human life. But in spite of the great importance accorded to the law of karma by the indologists and Indian as well as non-Indian-it has not been given a conceptual analysis which is very important from the philosophica; point of view to understand the intelligibility of the doctrine of karma. Dayakrishna and Rajendra Prasad have attempted to give a conceptual analysis of the doctrine of karma. But in the process they have raised a number of conceptual issues which deserve a close attention on the part of researchers. It is hoped that the study undertaken here is the extension of such a spirit. Unless we analyse the concepts of karma and karm phala and their relation to karta, we cannot understand the doctrine of karma in a frtitful manner.
the notion of karma is conceptually connected with the notion of sasara, transmigration, freedom and responsibility. In order to understand the notion of karma, a socio-spiritual analysis of the notion of sasasra, transmigration, freedom and responsibility is also required at which the present article aims. The objective of this article is not to ascertain the truth or falsity, validity or invalidity of the doctrine of karma nor even to make a hastorical study of the different interpretations of the doctrine of karma.
Socio-Spiritual Analysis of Karma Theory
karma and rebirth are the two most important presuppositions of all schools of Indian Philosophy with the solitary exception of the system of carvaka. The Indian religions are intensely theistic and believe that God is omnipresent, omnipotent and omniscient and hence possessing absolute authority. The carvakas were a school of total materialism and didn't believe in any metaphysical reality be it soul or God. Both Buddhism and Jainism didn't believe in God as the creator, sustainer and destoyer of this universe. They believe that the universe is anadi, without beginning and ananta, without an end. Among the systematic schools, only the Nyaya Vaiseika admits God as the necessary condition for the fruition of the karman, which remains as an unseen potency (ada) consisting in merit and demerit in the soul. the yoga philosophy admits God only as an object of worship or meditation, and not as an agent in the fruition of the karman. Sacara accords a provisional place to personal God in his monistic vedanta. Even christian religion also asserts God But does not believe in the concept of rebirth. The entire ethics of Jain Philosophy is based on the strong foundation fo the theoty of karma. Now let us proceed to the relevance of this theory.
Change of karma VS Doctrine of self-effort (puruarthavada)
In Jainism, the moral responsibility of each and every karma is not endorsed to the God, but it falls under the orbit of the individual self. This novel concept of maral responsibility of the individual self, which is based on the philosophy of karma can restrain the human race from blaming others for ones good or bad actions. Although it is sure and certain that bound karmas must be experienced by the self someway or the other after the completion of the duration of karmas. As per Jain philosophy, there are two types of karmic bondage, dalika karma and nikacita karma. When the intensity of a bondage is extremely strong, it has to be suffered as it is, it cannot be mitigated. Such karmas are of nikacita mature, they can't be changed in any case. 6 The other part of dalika karmas which occupies the maximum space in the karmic range, is changeable. The unchangeable part of nikacita karma is very small. on the basis of that snall part of unchangeable karma, we can't declare that we get the reference of two types of vedana (sensation) namely, evabhuta and anevabhuta vedana. Evabhuta means to experience the karmas as it is bound. Anevabhuta means to experience the karmas with a difference. Gautam asked-Lord!Soul experiences evabhuta or anevambhuta vadana?
Mahavira replied- Gautam! Soul experiences both the kinds of vedana. This reference is authentic proof of concept of change in karma. So the karmic atom of dalika type can be cganged and in experiencing its fruition man is independent. Ine is free in ecperiencing the dalika karma as it is or can be made othe-wise. Whereas in nikacita type of karm all the possibillities of change ceaces in itself. Thus tirtha kara Mahavira possessed anekantic perspective. He didn't give absolute importance either to karma of to self-effort. He established the relativity of soul and karma. 9 If we assert that once the karmas are bound, can't be altered in any state. Then there will be no scope of transformation through meditational practices auto suggestions and practice of different kinds of austerities. One should not give up ones gard work or efforts by giving importance to the small range of unchangeable karmas. The philosophy of tirtha kara Mahavira is the philosophy of efforts (puruarthavada).
The two most important revolutionary concepts of tirtha kara Mahavira in the context of karma theory are Udirana (pre-maturation of karmas) and sakramaa (ckange of karmas.) On the basis of which we can call the doctrine of karma as ths doctrine of puruathavada in the words of Magavira. This concept of puruarthvada as propounded by Magavira must be understood clearly. The doctrine of karma truly speaking is a doctrine of selu-effort. It is believed that puruartha or human effort is essential pre-requisite for the maturing of past karmas. The Mahabharata 136.7-8 compares past karmas to seeds which remain fruitless if they are not sown the tilling of the soil for sowing is human effort which is essential for sown seeds to nature. This proposition is however not universally true. Birth lenght of life death and human sufferings generally has no relationship to human effort. Every soul has a right to do atma sadhana and there by transforming human-personality through freedom of action the Ghagvad Gita also emphasizes on "atmaiva hyatmano bandhuratmaiva riputatmana", ones own self is ones friend and ones own self is ones enemy. Hence one should lifr ones self up by ones own effort. As Jain Agama uttaraghyayana Sutra avers. "appa katta vikatta ya duhaa ya suhaa ya ": self or atma is endowed with the capacity to counter his pravittis (actions) born of saskaras through the process of udavartana, apavartana, sakramana, udiraa, i.e. increased realization decreased realization and transformation prematuration. The energy where by the soul increases the lenght of duration and the intensity of fruition of a karman this process is called increased realization. And the energy where by the soul decreases them is called decreased realization. Sakramaa means tranformation do the lenght of duration and intensity of fruition of a karman. There are few exceptional cases where the concept of sakramaa does not apply. They are as follows:
a. Sakramaa (transfrernce) always occurs in parallel prakti (subtypes) only but not in opposite sub-types of karmas.
b. Sakramaa never occurs in main types but always occurs in subtypes.
c. The four sub-types of life-span karma mutually doesn't change.
d. Likewise deluded view and deluded conduct mutully doesn't change.
Pre-mature realization is the process by which a karman is made capable of premature fruition. Thus there is an open room for changing the dalika karmas through the process of nirjara i.e. penances and tolerance of hardships etc. If there is no scope for change, then there will be no difference between the God and karma both are once determined are unchangeable. Then there will be no scope for personal efforts of sadhana giving charity observing vows humanly behaviour meditation service to others etc. But through detemined will power and self-effort we can change our future. In the area of nikacita karma bhoga experiencing the results of past actions a man is not free but in the area of yoga as a discipline for transformation of human personality he is free. "Restrain" or "Sayam" is a supreme virtue which can be observed in various ways i.e. restrain over emotions or passions restrain over thoughts restrain of sensual organs restrain over ines legs hands words etc. are possible only in the human realm. The believer of karma philosophy will always remain optimistic in his approach and accepts the existence of rebirth heaven hell and fruition of karma according to ones deeds i.e. asserts the concept of reward and punishment. Man is independent in binding new karmas as well as in shedding of the karmas. This belief acts as a remote control over omes behaviour over ones attachment towards possessions over ones consumable and non-consumable goods over ones violent acts and over ones laxity and control over ones attachment and 15 Voseavasyaka Bhaya of Jinabhadra Ga i. Ed. Dalsukha Malavaniya and Bechardasji. Lal Bhai Dalpatabhai. Ahmedabad: Bhartiya Samsk ( ti Vidyamandir. Vol.1, 1968, verse 1939. 16 Casvaikalida Sutra op. dit. 10. 14 aversion uttaradhyayan Sutra explains attachment and aversion is the main cause of bondage. Kundakunda explains: "Sauvarikampi nigalam badhanati kalayssam ca yatha puruam badhanatyevam jivam subhamasubham va ktam karma 17 i.e. a shackle made of gols is as good as one made of lron for the prupose of chaining a man. Similarly the karmas whether good or bad equally bind a person. 18 It is quoted in Muaka Upaniad akama a desireless person transcends the human seed that is overcomes rebithr and transmigration. According to Jainism the inflow of karmic matter that is asrava is stopped by savara coupled with the destruction of or exhaustion of pasr karmas through nitjara. Thus it is clear that each and every soul can get rid from bondage through positive efforts and can attain the ultimate goal of libheration. Thus karma is a doctrine of self-effort. It is not a doctrine of eternal damnation of a sinner in hell for one-time sin committed by him which is so eloquently and powerfully expressed by jpjm Banyan : one leak will sink a ship and one sin will destroy the sinner. The karma doctrine offers prospects of redemption change of attitude change of ones habits change of onex nature through disciplined conduct and atonement. Impartial justice in the heart of society can be established automaticall through the law of karma.
Acary Mahapraj a says there is a great mystery of science hidden behind the theory of karma. The person who wants to establish good destiny must concentrate on the main sources of purushartha i.e. mind body and speech activities which work only after the destuction of antaraya karma. Tirthakara Mahavira showed the great path of establishing ones bright destiny throth the practices of mental vocal and physical inhibitions Mareover Acarya Mahapraj a says that kusala mana kusala vai and kusala karma is a cause of establishing good fortune. 19 It is a tenet in Jainism that man alone is responsible for his own condition of weal or woe. He is the architect of his own destiny. It is the result of the rexiprocal interaction between himself and the rest of the world. Coctrine of karma and Non-transference of Merit
Jainism is the only religion which didn't countenance the concept of puyadana. Puya is not treated datavya the thing given. The Jain thinkers believe the concept of karma as being material in character. There is influx of of karmas into the soul on account of performance of karma and the same could be purged (nirjara) by appropriate but there couls be no question of transfer of karma as accepted in smtis puras and vedas. The sharing inheritance or transfer of evil kahmas is contrary to the doctrine of karmas which postulates an exclusively personal responsibility for good and evil karma. But we find traces of the belief in sharing ingeritance and transfer of evil karma in early literature like gveda Atharvaveda.
The problem of mass of collective suffering such as due to natural cala3 mities like draught floods earthquakes etc. was also explained as the consequence of the misdeeds of the ruler. The Buddh says that when kings are evil minded his ministers become likewise in consequence the rhythm of the seaxons is disturbed rain winds occur out of time and crops are poor peoplw suffer from sickness. The Mahabharata attributes the natural calamities to the sins of the ruler. This was supported by the Mant 23 that a king who fails to do his duty of protection towards the subject shares one sixth of the sins of his subjects where as the doctrine of karma which strongly emphasizes the element of personal responsibility for actions that each person enjoys and suffers the consequences of his own cts and there is no transference of merit. Nobody can share ones suffering and pleasure according to the theory of karma. Neither his kinsmen nor his friends nor hos sons nor his relations will share his suffering he alonehas to beat it; for the karman follows the doer. Nearest or dearest whosoever it is, nobody can share or transfer ones deeds to others as per Jainism.
Lord Mahavira, in Uttaradhyana Sutra rightly discussed that appakatta vikattaya duhaa ya suhaaya. Soul experiences joy and sarrow according to ones own karma. If there is no law of karma, it means a complete abrogation of the law of karma by permitting an evil doer to escape the consequences of his misdeeds by transferring the same to someone else and thereby make an iannoceny person suffer for the same. So Milindapa-ha 295-296 says emphatically An evil deed O king cannot be shared with one who has not done it has not consented to do it. Well O king so is it that a good deed can be shared but not an evil one. It is not the case. The idea of sharing and inheritance of evil as embodied in the g veda and Atharva veda and Mahabharata represents ideas of a stage prior to the formulation and universal acceptance of the classical doctrine of karma which strongly emphasizes th element of personal responsibility for actions.
Law of personal Responsibility
The main difference between the acceptance of God and theoty of karma is that in case of God, miral responsibility of an individual is transformed to the almighty God nad on the other hand, theoty of karma places a strong foundation and endorses moral responsibilty of each and every action to oneself. The soctrine of karma is a revolutionary development which endowed man with free will, made him responsible for his own acts and the architect of his destiny. The doctrine of karma is a doctrine of personal responsibility for a man's entire actions. So each man is responsible for his own actions and he alone gas to bear their consequences. It made him self-centred but not selfish. It is also an essential feature of thr doctrine that a person must do good and avoid evil. He must not cause injury to various forms of life as, such acts produce demerit; likewise he must do good to all beings to eanr merit (puya) which will ensure rebirth in higher forms of existence and bring happiness. Thus, the doctrine of karma provided strong motivation not to act exclusively for personal benefit and disregard to the interests of his fellow beings. The graph of morality will be increased to the highest exent and an individual will not always stick to the materialistic objects leading a luxurious life and there will be a balance between spitituality and materiality.
The belief in the theory of darma can establish a society bereft of corruption, adulteration of karma can establish a society bereft of corruption adulteration terrorism, mal-practices, incidents of rapes,cruel behaviour with the animals and the employers etc. The members of society who believe in karma can never exploit the rights of others and can help in building an exo- friendly life on the earth. The cruel behaviour resulting through selfish urge in case of dowry, medical experiments causing environmental pollution, mismeasurement and mixing harmful materials in the mild products used for the babies etc. can also be avoided. Jainism asserts that one who tortures and kills other beings, who strives in an extraorinary manner after possessions and who is governed by life long passions, obtans naraka ayuya (infernal life), The deceitful, the fraudulent man, who is in possession of the thorns, binds tiryunca ayusya (non-human life), the humble, sincere one, whose ppassion is slight, mantya ayusya (human life), The belief in the above statements of canons can
restrain the entire act of an individual. The Acara ga Sutra cites karmic bondage occurs when the actions are done in the wake of non-vigilence Thus the karma incurred due to non-vigilence is uprooted by means of vigilence (selfawareness).
Theory of Atmakarttvavada
A man has at his disposal three means to perform any activity, mind, speech and body. Activities may be good or evil. If mind, body and speech are themselves good, the activity will also be good and fi they are vitiated the activity will also be evil. Thus it is clear that result of the three fold activity is the catse of new bnondage. So according to Jainism your soul is responsible for both good and evil karmic bondage. It creates both pain and pleasure for itself. Neither God nor anybody else nor any objecy is responsible for them. Thus Magvira propounded the concept of atmakarttvavada (theory of creation by the self). In matters of pleasure and pain the worldly soul is solely responsoble for them, as self does all its actions consciously and automatically encouragement to moral values in life occurs. This is the greatest relevance of karma theory that crimes and punishments can be kept under control in the society.
Jainism believes that puruartha is the key factor, through which a man can transform himself. It means, purua (soul) is neither a toy in the hands of niyati (universal law) or bhagya (fate), nor even everything is controlled by karma. It is the puruartha that builds the system of karma. One should be very slear about the limitations of the power of karma of niyati. Some people say, "Whatever is destined in bhagya (fate) is bound to happen." Jainism however does not conform to such absolutistic statements. If we enthrone karma or bhagya i.e. fate of destiny on the seat of God, then what is sense in denying the gheist conviction that nan is not a mere puppet in the hands of God or almighty? As cited in the Uttrajjayaai, my ownself is the doer and undore of misery and happiness; my ownself, friend and foe, according as Ict well or badly. Therefore, it would be absolutely wrong to believe that karma is everything or whole and sole. karma is not the universal sovereign. man can change ones destiny through efforts.
Equanimity in Bearing Karmas Leading to Liberation
self, in its dynamic march through worldly lives is constantly earning and shedding karmas. It earns further karmic bondages even while suffering the fruits of the past karmas, if it does not suffer the said fruits with equanimity and objectivity. A person who passes thrugh some calamty-mental or physical grumbles against his fare, looses temper and commits acts of indiscretion and violence with a view to avoid the uncomfortable circumstances in which he is placed. Another man who is padding through a period of prosperity or is invested with some power over his fellow man, he while enjoying this prosperity and power he commits of acts of indiscretion and violence. Both these persons are reaping the fruits of their past of present karmas but while doing so, they are creating fresh bondages by their acts of indiscretion and violence. Even acceptance of fruits of good and bad karmas with over joy or sorrow disturbs the mental equilibrium and results in fresh bondage of karmas. Therefore, the ideal way to face the fruits of ones karmas is to face them calmly, objectively and peacefully with full wquanimity of mind. If you are oppressed with pains, treat the occasion with wquanimity and understanding, thinding within yourself that it is a good opportunity to shed your karmas which have been of your own cration out of some ignorance. If yot are passing through a period of pleasure, thank the scheme of universe bhich has not failed to reward your good actions of the past, and be prepared to do further good without any strings of desires attached to it. One should constantly remember that pleasure and pain are the inseparable constituents of life and the true art of living consists in learning to bear with equanimity and undersyanding. If this is done, no fresh karmic bondages are evolved while reaping the fruits of our past karma.
thus it can be concluded that in the context of Jain ethics, doctrine of karma is as important as the theory of cause and effect in the field of science. Thus the sdoctrine of karma is based on certain fundamental postulates :
(i) It is a law of personal responsibility; the doer himself must bear the consequences of has actions. This liability cannot be shifted. If a person escapes human retribution he must face divine retribution. The unexhausted karmas have to be experienced by the doer in his subseqent life or rebirth. The very belief in this karma theory restrains each and every action of the human conduct. Moral conduct of an individual is the cause of moral conduct of the society. So it can be said that peaceful co-existence, law and order in the society can be maintained through the faith in the law of karma in this L.P.G. era.
(ii) there is inequality and sufferings in life, the doctrine of karma is evolved as a parallel to and on the pattern of the general law of causation, cause and effect, which we notice in the physical universe. The doctrine of karma seeks to explain these phenomena in a rational manner that they are not the result of blind functioning of the universe an arbirary fate. Hencethe doctrine is based on the maxim As you sow so shall you reap. The inequality and suffering, which a man has to face or undergo, is nothing but the consequences of his own earlier acts. It is a law of retributive justice. Thus it is the doctrine of karma which makes the world of sentient creation morally intelligible. There is no escape from the consequences of karmas in case of nikacita karmas.
(iii) The doctrine of karma extended the causal law to the moral realm. It held that good and evil deeds have a necessary causal connection with the experience of happiness and unhappiness. Since this is intended in a more than psychological sense there was obviously need for a mediating agency which would connject karma with its result which might be separated from it widely in time and space. Brahmanical system tended to postulate God as the agency, which rewards or punishes good and evil deeds. Jainism, like Buddhism, however attributed an unseen power to karman itself which brought about its result at the appropriate time. One implication of this doctrine is that the distinction of good and evil mudt be held to be objective and independent of subjective relativity.
(iv) Another implication is that action must be held to create an unconscious and persistent force which remaining connected with the psyche of the agent and has the capacity of directing it into situations appropriate to its own fruition and controlling the affective reactions of the experiences arising form such situations.
(v) The doctrine of karma is useful in keeping mental equanimity in good and bad times and in reseiving urge from with in for performing good acts. He never become arrogant in the days of his happiness and good fortune, nor does he become downcast and depressde in the days of his miseries and misfortune. But he remains clm and composed and maintains balance of mind at all times favourable and adverse because he knows that all the circumstances and situations that arise in man's life are but plays of karma. He is convinced of the fact that by force of good works, man can overcome difficulties and remove miseries as also that he can make his life more and more happy by advancing on the path of righteousness. By doing so, man makes himself permanently happy and ay the same time attains higher and higher stages of spiritual evolution and consequently attains liberation lying beyond the duality of good and evil (vi) The importance of human effort is emphasized by Mahavira, which rules supreme in Jainism. According to him, a man should lift his soul by his own srrorts. He says, the soul is the begetter of both happiness and sorrow, it is its own friend when it treads the path of righteousness and is its own enemy when it treads the forbidden path. The prerequisite to the path of righteousness is to conquer the four passions, viz anger, pride deceit and greed and the five sense organs. He says conquer anger by forgiveness, pride by humility deceit by straight forwardness and greed by contentment. According to Mahavira, conquering ones own self is the most difficult thing in the worls. He says, Victory over ones self is greater than conquering thousands and thousands of enemies on the battlefield. A true conqueror is one who conquers his own self. Conclusion
In short, doctrine of moral causation inspires optimism and makes man the master of his own destiny It teaches man to remain always engaged in good works and to perform ones duties well. The doctrine of karma has the message for man that he can attain fortunes by good works. It is in his own hands to shape his own good or bad destiny and consequently to experience their good or bad fruits. Practice of rtghteousness, influence his karma in accordance with their intensity, he can alter his karma transform the bad karmas into the good and almost destroy it. No karma lasts forever. On the expiry of its time limit it is destroyed and wuth its end mnds its fruition. This is the reason why the wise remains continuously engaged in the activity of creating good destiny in order to perpetuate forever their good state. By doing so man makes himself permanently happy and at the same time attains higher and higher stages of spiritual development. Thus Mahapraj-a states that karmavada is a powerful tool to root out the wide spread immotality. It is neither an escapist theory nor it calls for modify resignation, its actual deep and practical meaning is to employ our srrorts to our present and future for the better.
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1. Rajendra Prasad, karma causation and Retributive Morality Delhi ICPR & Munshiram Manogarlal publishers 1989 p.20 2. Chatterjee & Dutta An Introduction toIndian Philosophy University of Calcutta : Calcutta 1939 .p.18 3. Tattvartha Sutra of umasvati 1.1 4. S, N. Dasgupta A History of Indian Philosophy vol-ii, Cambbridge University Press: Cambbridge, 1992 p.403 5. Mahaprajna Jain Darsana ka Samyak Darsana op.cit.p.48 6. Gommatsara : karmakanda, verse 440 7. Mahaprajna Jain Darsana ka Samyak Darsana of.cit.p.46 8. Bhagavati. op.cit.5.118 9. Mahaprajna Jain Darsana : Manan aur Mimamsa op9.dit. p.298.299 10. Mahaprajna Jain Darsana ka Samyak Darsana op.cit.p.46 11. Bhagvad Gita, verse 6.5 12. karma prakrti with curni and the commentaries of Malayagiri and Upadhyaya yasovijaya (1937), p.19 (2) 13. Ibid, p.19 (2) 14. Ibid, p. 19 (2) 15. Visesavasyaka Bhasya of jinabhadra Gani. Ed. 16. Dasvailalika Sutra op.cit.10 17. Samayasara, verse 146 18. Mundaka Upanisad, op.cit.ll.1. 19. Mahaprajna Jain Darsana ka Samyak Darsana of.cit.p.46-47 20. Yuvaraj krishan. The Doctrine of karma. Page.39 21. Anguttar Nikaya. ll.iV.70 22. Mahabharata of Vedavyas. Vol.9. 1954, 12.91.34-35 23. Manusmrti. Vlll.304 24. Uttaradhyayana Sutra op.dit. 13.23 25. Thanam Ed. Muni Nathmal 4.628,629,630,631. 26. Acaranga Sutra, op.cit. 5.4, 74. 27. Mahaprajna, Phgilosophical Foundations of Jainism, op.cit.p.98 28.Mahaprajna, Phgilosophical Foundations of Jainism, op.cit.p.34 29. Uttarajjayanani. 20.37 30. The path of Arhat, p. 109 31. Uttarajjayanani. 13.8 32. G.C. pande, Lectures on Jainism. Delhi : Delhi University Press. 1977 p.10 33. Jain philosophy and Religion, Eng. Trans. of Jain darsana by Muni Nyayvijayaji p. 241 34. Uttarajjayanani. 20.37 35. Dasvailalika Sutra 8.39 36. Uttarajjayanani. 9.34 37. Mahavirartaj Galera.. Jain Studies and Scinence, p. 154 - Asstt. Prof. in Deptt. of Jainology Comparative philosopy & Religion Jain Vishva Bharati University
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