Cyclic arrangement of The Universe
Cyclic arrangement of The Universe
<poem>According to Jain literature, there are two divisions of time in the form of Evolution (UtasarpiàÍ) and Devolution (AvasarpiàÍ) epochs in the Àryan section of Bharata region of JambödvÍpa. The epoch, in which the life-span of human and sub-human beings, their body-height and prosperity etc. are gradually decreasing, is called Devolution (AvasarpiàÍ) epoch. In contrast, there is gradually increasing order in the above properties in the Evolution (UtsarpiàÍ) epoch. The duration of devolution period is 10 crore x crore (KoÅÂ-KoÅÍ) SÂgaras consisting of many Palya years. The duration of Evolution period is also the same. Both of these epochs combined make up a KalpakÂla (Aeon) with a total duration of 20 crore x crore (20 x1014) SÂgaras. Each of the epoch of the Devolution and Evolution has six spokes or divisions.
Six Divisions or Spokes of Devolution Epoch (of time)
The six spokes of the Devolution epoch are : (1) Extreme plentitude (SuîamÂ - SuîamÂ), (2) Plentitude (SuîamÂ), (3) Plentitude-cum-Penury (SuîamÂ - DöîamÂ), (4) Penury-cum-Plentitude (DuîamÂ - SuîamÂ) (5) Penury (DuîamÂ) and (6) Extreme penury (DuîamÂ - DuîamÂ). The Evolution epoch also has six spokes which are in the reverse order of these six ones. The word, ‘îamÂ’ means division of time. The prefixes ‘Su’ and ‘Du’ mean good and bad respectively. Thus, etymologically, the terms ‘SuîamÂ’ and ‘DuîamÂ’ signify the ‘good time’ and ‘bad-time’. Both these epochs run a revolving cycle of time like the dark & bright half of the months. They undergo a cycle starting from Devolution epoch followed by Evolution epoch and so on. Out of these six, the first spoke of extreme plentitude (SuîamÂ-SuîamÂ) has a duration of four crore x crore SÂgaras (4 x 1014 SÂgaras). The second spoke has a duration of three crore x crore SÂgaras. The third spoke has a duration of two crore x crore SÂgaras. The fourth spoke has a duration of one crore x crore SÂgaras less by forty two thousand years (i.e. 1 crore x crore SÂgaras-42000 years). The fifth spoke has a duration of 21000 years and the sixth spoke also has a duration of 21000 years.
Changes of The Six Spokes of Time
(a) The First Spoke of Extreme Plentitude : In the first spoke of extreme plentitude, the land is devoid of sands, smoke, fire, ice and thorns etc. There are no deficient-sensed beings (Vikalatraya-having two, three or four senses) like conch, scorpion, ant, flies etc. during this epoch. There are divine sands and pleasantly smelling soil. There are no non-instinctive (AsanjnÍ, without Mana) and mutually opponent beings. There is no difference of day and night there. There is no heat, cold or darkness during this spoke. There are also no bad habits (Vyasanas) of enjoying other’s wives and wealth etc. During this spoke, the men are born in pairs (a male and a female). Their body height is 6000 Dhanuîas (~three Koías or ~ 6 miles or ~ 10 kms.). They have a life-span of three Palyas (uncountable years). The men and women living during this spoke have two hundred and fifty six bones in the backside of their body. Their bodies do neither excrete urine nor faeces. They have good smelling respirations. The colour of their body is like heated gold. Their body configuration is Samacaturasra (symmetrical) and their bone joints are adamantinely nailed and wrapped i.e. VajravçîabhanÂrÂca Samhanana. The strength of everybody is equivalent to 9000 elephants. During this spoke, there is no other family member except the male and female born in pair. There are no villages and towns etc. during this spoke. There are only ten kinds of Kalpa-vçkîas (wish-fulfilling trees) which offer the mentally desired materials to these pairs. The Names of The Wish-fulfilling Trees (Kalpa-vçkîas) There are ten classes of wish-fulfilling trees during the first spoke which are as below : (1) Drinks - supplying Trees (PÂnÂnga) (2) Musical instruments supplying trees (TöryÂnga) (3) Ornament-supplying trees (BhöîanÂnga) (4) Dress-supplying trees (VastrÂnga) (5) Food-supplying trees (BhojanÂnga) (6) Residence-supplying trees (ÀlayÂnga) (7) Light-supplying trees (DÍpÂnga) (8) Vessels - supplying trees (BhÂjanÂnga) (9) Garland-supplying trees (MÂlÂnga) (10) Lustre-supplying trees (Jyotiranga) These wish-fulfilling trees are neither plants (vegetation) nor any peripatetic deities. However, their specificity is that they offer the fruits of the sacred karmas of the living beings despite their being of the nature of earth (PçthvÍkÂyika).
Pleasure etc. in The Lands of Enjoyment (Bhogabhömis) The paired couples, in the lands of enjoyment, receive the materials offered by the wish-fulfilling trees and proteate themselves in many kinds of body (i.e. VikriyÂ-assuming different body forms) and enjoy the various types of sensuals. They have an intake of food equivalent to the size of plum on every fourth day. These pairs do not have accidental or sudden death (KadalÍghÂta Maraàa) and they enjoy pleasures infinite-times more than the CakravartÍs. The males of the lands of enjoyment are more beautiful than the Lords of deities (Indra) in the heavens. The women there, are beautiful like the angels or nymphs. On birth in the lands of enjoyment, the newly born pairs spend their first three days in sucking their thumbs on the birth- bed. Afterwards, they begin sitting, wavering movement, regular movement, learning of arts and crafts, acquiring youthhood and capacity of acquiring righteousness. Each of this development stage takes place in three days each. In other words, the pair becomes fully young and skilled in all kinds of arts by acquiring seven kinds of capacities as above in twenty-one days. As the time passes, the height of the body, life-span, strength, prodigy and radiance etc. of the living beings of this first spoke of four crore x crore SÂgaras have a gradual decrement.
(b) The Second Spoke of Plentitude : With the above kinds of gradual decrements in various spheres, the second spoke named as SuîamÂ (Plentitude) begins. In the beginning of this spoke of time, the body height of men is 4000 Dhanuîas (2 koías or ~ 4 miles or ~ 6 kms.), their life-span is two Palya and the colour of their body is white like the moon. They have two hundred twenty eight bones in the back-side of their body. They have a beautiful symmetrical body. They have a food-intake equivalent to the weight and size of Belleric myrabolan (BahedÂ) every third day. The pair- born children in this spoke suck their thumbs for five days on their birth-bed. Afterwards, they spend five days each during the processes of sitting, wavering movement, steady movement, acquirement of learning of arts etc., youthhood and capacity for acquiring righteousness. Besides these specifics, the other descriptions of the living beings born in this spoke are similar to those described in case of the spoke of extreme plentitude. The duration of this second spoke is three crore x crore SÂgaras. As it moves, the height, strength, prodigy, life-span and radiance etc. of the living beings there gradually decrease.
(c) The Third Spoke of Plentitude-cum-Penury : After the passing away of three crore x crore SÂgara years, the third spoke of time - SuîamÂ - DuîamÂ commences. It has a duration of two crore x crore SÂgaras. In the beginning of this spoke, the height of men is 2000 Dhanuîas (1 kosa or ~ 2 miles or ~ 3.2 kms.). Their life-span is one Palya and the body colour is white like the Priyangu fruit. The number of bones in the back-side of males and females of this spoke is sixty four. All the human have symmertical body. They have food - intake equivalent to the size and weight of a Myrabolan (ÀmlÂ) every alternate day. The pair of infants born during this spoke have a seven-days system. They suck their thumbs for seven days while on birth bed. Afterwards, they have each process of seven days duration like sitting, wavering movement, steady movement, acquirement of learnings, youthhood and capacity for being righteous. Every stage requires seven days for completion. Besides these specifics, the rest of the description about the pairs in this spoke is similar to that of the first spoke. During all these three spokes of time, there are the lands of enjoyment and there are no thieves, enemies, six-occupations like weaponry and writing etc., cold, heat, hurricanes and rains etc. The period of three spokes are respectively known as the maximal (Uttama), medial (Madhyama) and minimal (Jaghanya) lands of enjoyment. One more important fact is that there are two types of Lands of enjoyment. Some are eternal and the others are temporary. Eternal Lands of enjoyment are present in Devkuru & Uttarkuru in Videh Kshetra and are characterized by the presence of the system of Land of enjoyment forever, however the temporary Lands of enjoyment are replaced with the system of Lands of Action or Karmabhumis. The example of which, is the Aryakhand of the Bharat Kshetra of Jambudweep, where all the world of today is present. You must be astonished to know that all the system of the Land of Enjoyment persisted throughout the present world crores of years back. Fourteen Kulakaras or Patriarchs or Family founders were born serially in the 3rd spoke of the devolution epoch in the Aryan Section of this Bharat region. These Kulakaras gradually prepared the people to accept the Land of Action ahead. The last Kulakara was NÂbhirÂja, who became the father of the first Tirthankar ‘Bhagwan Rishabhdev’. Known by the names of Adinath, Adibrahma, Prajapati etc., the first Tirthankar was born in the 3rd spoke, when it had to last only for 84 lac Purvas, three years and eight and-a-half months. When the Lord became young, He established the system of six types of Activities namely : Asi i.e. Warriorship, Masi i.e. Writing, Krishi i.e. Agriculture, Vidya i.e. Knowledge or Learnings, Vanijya i.e. Commerce and Shilp i.e. Arts & Crafts to properly initiate the system of ‘Land of Action’ on the basis of His divine Knowledge. He became the originator of the trend of the human life and culture. He established the systems of language, mathematics, political life, township, marriage and so on. He was also the first to initiate the women-education. Tirthankar Rishabhdev got initiated as Digambar i.e. Naked Mahamuni and started hard penance when the third spoke was continuing in its last phase. (d) Commencement of the Fourth Spoke of Penury-cum-Plentitude The fourth spoke of time named DuîamÂ-SuîamÂ (penury-cum-plentitude) commenced when three years and eight and-a-half months had elapsed after the liberation of Lord Vçîabhadeva. In the beginning of this spoke, the life-span was one Pörva-koti and the number of bones in the back-side of the body was forty-eight. The height of the body was 525 D. The duration of this spoke was one koÅÂ-koÅÍ SÂgara less by forty two thousand years. As far as the Fourth spoke of the Aryakhand of the Bharat Region of our Jambudweep is concerned, 63 great personages (êalÂkÂ-Puruîas) were born here namely : 24 Tirthankars (except 1st Tirthankar Bhagwan Rishabhdev, who was born in 3rd spoke) 12 Chakravartis (Universal Monarchs, Emperors) 9 Balbhadras 9 Narayanas & 9 Prati-Narayanas. The description of these great personages can be studied in the Prathmanuyog Section of the book JAIN-BHARATI*. All these great personages are destined to get liberated either in the same birth (as all Tirthankars etc.) or in their coming births. One more fact is that there are two eternal Pilgrimage centres in Aryakhand of Bharat Region of Jambudweep and they are ‘Ayodhya’ & ‘Sammed Shikherji’. All the 24 Tirthankars are always born at Ayodhya and so it is called as Eternal Birthland, however in the present Hundavasarpini epoch, only five Tirthankars were born at Ayodhya including Bhagwan Rishabhdev. Hundavasarpini epoch is an Avasarpini epoch with some extra-ordinary events e.g. Bhagwan Rishabhdev was born and got salvated in the 3rd spoke only at the place of 4th spoke and so on. Including Ayodhya, there are 16 Birthplaces of 24 Tirthankars in the present age and one can have the view of all these birthplaces at one place in ‘Heerak Jayanti Express’ of Jambudweep-Hastinapur. This cemented stable train is exhibiting various models & paintings of the past and present temples & monuments of various Tirthankar Birthlands. Sammed Shikherji is the Salvation land of 20 Tirthankars out of 24. This famous Pilgrimage centre is present at Jharkhand state of India. The Salvation lands of 4 remaining Tirthankars are : Kailash Mountain : Bhagwan Rishabhdev Champapuri-Mandargiri : Bhagwan Vasupujya Girnar : Bhagwan Neminath & Pawapuri : Bhagwan Mahavir The paintings of all these salvation lands have also been demonstrated in “Heerak Jayanti Express’. As you know Bhagwan Mahavir was the last & the 24th Tirthankar of this age, however Liberation or Moksha was attained by a number of great Mahamunis after Him also in 4th spoke.
(e) The Fifth Spoke of Penury The fifth spoke of time-wheel commenced after three years and eight and-a-half months on attaining salvation by Lord MahÂvÍra. It is named as the spoke of Penury (DuîamÂ). In its beginning, the people have a life-span of one hundred and twenty years. Their body height is seven Hastas, H (1 H ~ 1.5 ft.; 10.5 ft ~ 320.50 cm). There are twenty four bones in the back side of the body. Although the Salvation can not be attained by the one, who has taken birth in 5th spoke, but the path of Salvation is still going on. Munis (Shramans) and Householders (Shravakas) are the two divisions of the present path of Liberation. Indian land has always been rich with the penance of various great Saints and Sadhvis, who remained immersed in spirituality and showed the same path to the world also. I tell about one great Saint of this 5th spoke ‘Muni Chandragupt’, who was the most influential Mauryan King in Gupt Period of Indian polity. He was fascinated towards the path of Liberation and took Jaineshwari Deeksha. He was a staunch devotee of his Preceptor ‘Bhadrabahu Muniraj’, the last Shrutkevali after Bhagwan Mahavir. After the Samadhi i.e. holy death of Bhadrabahu Swami, Muni Chandragupt stayed at the place of his Samadhi for 12 years and remained indulged in the devotion of his preceptor along with his penance. Once a group of Digambar Saints came there and all of them went for their Ahar Charya (taking meals). By chance, a saint forgot his Kamandalu there only, later when he remembered about it, he went to the place of Ahar, but for his surprise, there was no residential colony and houses etc. and his Kamandalu was hanging from a tree. By this event, everybody knew that for 12 long years, deities were making the arrangements of the Ahar or meals of Muni Chandragupt, being happy with his devotion towards his Preceptor. Later Chandragupt Muni had to do repentance because of taking meals from deities. As a matter of fact, Digambar Munis can not accept the meals from deities, because deities can not persue restraint or ‘Sanyam’ in their lives. In the times of Bhadrabahu Muniraj, there appeared a fierce famine in North India. At this time, Digambar Jain tradition was divided into 2 sects-Digambar and Shwetambar. At this point, I want to tell you that Indian land had always been graced with great men & women, who actively & valuably participated in Politics, Warriorship, Religiosity, Spirituality or devotion to Motherland and so on. You must have heard the names of Maharana Pratap, Maharani Laxhmibai, Mahatma Gandhi, Indira Gandhi and a number of others. In that series only, today you are having the auspicious presence of the topmost Jain Sadhvi of Digambar Jain tradition ‘Pujya Ganini Pramukh Shri Gyanmati Mataji’, who is not only the first celibate Jain Sadhvi of the 20th century but also the first female writer in the tradition of Bhagwan Mahavir, to have a series of more than 250 Scriptures & Books on Jainism to her credit. By the deep most studies of Jain-Agam, she has given the treasure of the structures of Jain Geography-Jambudweep, Terahdweep & Teenlok etc. to the entire world. You can see all these structures here at the campus of Jambudweep. Every step of her, is in accordance with Jain-scriptures always and quite unique. You are fortunate enough to have the darshans of such a living symbol of Ancient Indian Culture. For 58 years, she has taken meals & water etc. only once in 24 hours, she has toured the whole Indian land on foot in these years and thus a hard ascetic life of penance but full with creative achievements, is enough to represent her versatile personality. In the same way, the tradition of religion will continue upto the end of the 5th spoke. The Chaturvidh Sangh of Muni, Aryika, Shravak & Shravika will hold the responsibility of the flowing of the religious stream.
(f) The Sixth Spoke of Extreme Penury The sixth spoke of time-wheel of extreme penury (Ati-duîamÂ) begins after three years, 8.5 months. This spoke is highly rough i.e. unfavourable. In the beginning of this spoke, the height of the body is 3-3.5 Hastas (5-6 ft.), the number of bones in the back side of the body is twelve and maximum life-span is twenty years. The foods of the people in this spoke are roots, fruits and fish etc. The people are unable to see clothes, trees and houses etc. Hence, all the people are naked and have no houses to live in. They move in forests. They have a smoky colour of their body. They behave like animals. They are cruel, deaf, blind, one-eyed, dumb, poor, full of anger, ugly, miserable and uncivilised. They have irregular (Hunadaka SansthÂna), hunch-backed and dwarf configurations of their body. They are always worried with many types of diseases and pains. They are highly passioned, deluded and most sinful by their agitating nature. They do not have family, friends, sons and wives etc. Their body is foul-smelling. Their hairs are infested with many kinds of small insects as lice etc. They are highly foolish. In this spoke, only those beings take birth here who arrive from their pre-birth of infernal and sub-human destinity. Also, they are reborn in terrific hells and sub-humanbeings after death. The life-span, body height & strength etc. gradually decrease with the passage of time here. Who is capable of describing their miserable life in words ?
The Time of Dissolution of the Universe (Pralaya KÂla) When twenty one thousand years less by forty nine days are passed in this sixth spoke, the period of fierce and terrific destruction of the living beings commences. At that time, there blows a deep-sounding and terrific hurricane for a week which results in destroying and uprooting of trees, mountains and rocks. Their uprooting causes deep sadness among the human and sub-human beings and they begin pathetic weeping for clothes and residence. During this period, numerable differently and total seventy two pairs enter the area between the platforms of the rivers of GangÂ and Sindhu and VijayÂrdha Mountain. Besides, the deities and VidyÂdharas (proficient in various superpowers by birth) feel compassion for human and sub-human beings and carry numerable of them to the protected places like the above. Seven Kinds of Rains At the end of the sixth spoke of time-wheel, the clouds pour out the rains of vile things like (1) very cold water, (2) alkaline water, (3) toxic fluids, (4) smoke (5) dust, (6) thunderbolt and (7) fire-flames to be seen with difficulty each for a seven-day period. Thus, the rains of the mattergies transformed into the above seven forms continue for forty-nine days. These rains destroy the remaining human beings etc. in the world. The earth infested with toxic fluids and burnt by the rains of fire-flames gets powdered up to one Yojana below the surface level as per Tiloya Paààatti, Chap-4 verse 1551. Thus, one Yojana of land located over the Chitra earth in the Àryan section of the Bharata region gets burnt and destroyed due to the above kinds of rains. The upper part of the land of the Àryan section turns into non-aggregated form due to the rains of thunderbolt and fire and flies away up to the end of the universe. When this happens, the Àryan section starts shining as mirror plane like the other lands and it gets devoid of dust and mud. The human beings present there (protected in the caves of VijayÂrdha mountain etc.) have a height of one Hasta (~1.5 ft.), life-span of 15-16 years and a gradually decreasing potency etc. Thus, the description of the six spokes of time-wheel of the devolution epoch concludes here.
Present Period At this time, there is the fifth spoke of the devolution epoch of time wheel at this Bharata Kîetra of Àryakhand. More than two thousand five hundred years have elapsed since the Salvation of the last TÍrthankara Lord MahÂvÍra. There are eighteen thousand and five hundred years still to go. Afterwards, there will be the beginning of the sixth spoke of time wheel. Changes in the Six Spokes of Time Wheel in the Evolution Epoch (UtsarpiàÍ Epoch) After the completion of all the six spokes of devolution epoch, the pleasing epoch of Evolution will begin. It also has six spokes namely (1) Extreme Penury, (2) Penury, (3) Penury-cum-plentitude, (4) Plentitude-cum-penury, (5) Plentitude and (6) Extreme Plentitude. This epoch also has a duration of ten KoÅÂkoÅi SÂgaras like the devolution epoch. During this epoch, the height, life-span and potency of the living beings gradually increase every day. Thus, I have explained the Cyclic Arrangement of Universe with the explanations of Devolution & Evolution epochs. Now-a-days the 5th spoke of the Devolution epoch is going on with the name of Hundavasarpini Kal. You have come to India from various countries to be acquainted with her eternal culture. Non-violence, Vegetarianism, Virtuousness and Shraman culture etc. have been the key points of this land and efforts are made to inculcate these characteristics in every person by explaining the morals of greatmen. At last, my sincere saying for all of you, is that human life is utmost valuable and one should utilize every moment of it to attain real knowledge and to lead vegetarian & vices-free life. Count Your Garden By The Flowers, Never By The Leaves That Fall. Count Your Days By Golden Hours, Don’t Remember Clouds At All. Because, Humanlife is a gift, accept it. Humanlife is a love, enjoy it. Humanlife is a struggle, fight it. Humanlife is a tragedy, face it. & Humanlife is a duty, perform it.